Thursday, August 27, 2020

Summarize Research Article Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Sum up Research Article - Essay Example laims that most medical clinics inside the United States do to utilize powerful sterilization quantifies along these lines coming about the disease of heap professionals yearly. The analyst in this way tries to explore the measures utilized in wellbeing offices inside the nation. The scientist recognizes a few wellbeing offices inside the state. Examining is the way toward distinguishing the medical clinics to research. The scientists utilize arbitrary examining method in the choice of both the clinics and the particular wellbeing professionals to research in the investigation. With the choice of a specific number of subjects, they start the examination. The procedure includes broad information assortment through meetings and perceptions of the practices in the wellbeing offices. They record the ensuing defilements and the activities the offices utilize after the pollutions. At long last, the specialists archive their discoveries consequently reaching an inference, which qualifies their previous theory. At long last, the specialists demonstrate that few wellbeing offices the nation over utilize different security precautionary measures. In any case, some need such central security includes along these lines introducing considerable wellbeing danger to their w orkers. The specialists look at the quantity of the tainted wellbeing professionals against the quantity of the uncontaminated so as to reach such condemning determinations. The legitimacy of the end depends on the quantity of the factors they use and the recurrence of either defilement or compelling sterilization so as to demonstrate the theory. Similarly likewise with quantitative examination, subjective investigates additionally work with viably developed theory, which they either support or object at long last. Be that as it may, subjective explores research esteems cap bring about specific practices. Such explores research the why, when, how and why complicated of a wonder. The investigates accordingly don't depend on numerical discoveries however on the

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Hobsons Choice Summary Essay Example for Free

Hobsons Choice Summary Essay The class divisions of the 1880s are obvious to find in the little scene when Alice, Vickey and Hobson discover Maggie means to wed Willie. Alice says, what you do contacts us and this is valid, as Maggies union with a man from a lower social class would be seen by numerous individuals as a disfavor. Hobson says that Willies father was a work-house whelp and that he would be the fool of Salford in the event that he permitted Maggie to wed one of his laborers. At this stage, Maggie doesn't appear to consider firing up in business all alone, simply working in the shop as in the past yet being paid for it. Willie is by all accounts a down-trodden, effectively scared man. He has no uncertainty been tormented by Hobson for a considerable length of time. Hobson anyway misconstrues Willie when he accepts his belt to him as this physical affront changes Willie promptly who is shock and, in his temper, kisses Maggie. Hobson is flabbergasted and doesnt realize how to react. ACT TWO Scene One Act Two opens per month after Maggie and Willie have left Hobsons. The business is clearly in a tough situation and Alice and Vickey are thinking that its difficult to oversee things without Maggie. We discover that they have lost a ton of their high-class exchange. Alice doesnt realize how to arrange the work in the workshop and advises Tubby to continue making stops up. Hobson is investing a greater amount of his energy in the Moonrakers. Alice is thinking that its hard to adjust the books. This short scene serves to set us up for the decay of Henry Hobson and the ascent of Willie Mossop. Vickey and Alice wish they were hitched and their arrangements will before long be promoted because of their dads over the top drinking. Scene Two Maggie reports that she has known about the connection among Vickey and Freddy. She sends Freddy to bring Albert Prosser. Freddy clarifies that Hobson has tumbled down their basement trap and is safe yet stable sleeping on certain packs. Notice how rapidly Maggie thinks. She has recently met Freddy outside Hobsons shop and from what he has advised her, quickly works out an arrangement to get cash out of Hobson for the weddings of her sisters. Scene Three We learn in this scene that Willie presently has his own shop. Maggie is clearly glad for the advancement they have made in such a brief timeframe. She is resolved that Willie will be treated with deference as a component of the family and makes her sisters kiss him as a token of their acknowledgment of the circumstance. Maggie rushes to pare Alice down when Alice says, hatefully, Willie Mossop was our boot hand. She rushes to call attention to that Willie is ace of his own business and her sisters are simply shop aides. Maggie reports that she and Willie will be hitched at one oclock at St. Philips church. She purchases a metal ring to use as a wedding band. This shows Maggie has her feet immovably on the ground as she isn't set up to squander cash on supposition when they need all the cash they can to get their business off the ground. Willie and Maggie utilize a pushcart to remove some of Hobsons old and unused furnishings. Alice and Vickey are dismayed that Maggie is eager to live in two basements utilizing used furnishings. Alice and Vickey obviously need to begin wedded existence with everything new and this shows the contrast among them and Maggie. Vickeys narrow minded streak is clear when she sees the two broken seats Will is doing and promptly despises Maggie having them. Maggie has consistently been certain and in this scene is significantly increasingly certain about herself. Her language is the language of order. At the point when Alice attempts to disclose to her that she doesnt recognize what she is focusing on, Maggie answers quickly, The distinction between us is that I do. I generally did. There are likewise signs in this scene that Willie is developing in certainty from the meek, startled, messy worker who initially showed up.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Research Paper Help: How to Use Research Tools and Other Resources to Write the Best Paper Possible

Research Paper Help: How to Use Research Tools and Other Resources to Write the Best Paper PossibleWhether you are a college student or an employer looking for a topic to use in a research paper, there are free resources available that will help you write the best paper possible. This can be particularly useful if you do not have time to read a book or make use of a research guidebook.When you are writing a research paper, it is often easier to look at examples of previous research papers and see how they were written. This will help you come up with your own style and have a better idea of what types of questions you will need to ask in order to effectively get the information that you need from the information presented.Another advantage to using research tools that are free is that you do not have to pay anyone to help you with your research paper. Instead, this means that you can get the information you need without any charges whatsoever.A great way to get the information you ne ed is by using a research tool that lists all of the topics you will need to cover in your paper. As you study these topics, you will be able to come up with your own ideas and structure for your paper.However, if you do not want to get bogged down with too many different topics, there are many online tools that allow you to study a research paper and make notes and save the information so that you can study later. This can be particularly helpful if you need to come up with the research yourself because you will know exactly what to say and you will not forget a point that you should have addressed.A well researched paper is also an important part of your education. The kind of school you go to will depend on the subject matter that you choose to study.In this case, choosing a subject that relates to a field that is very popular will increase your chancesof getting into a good school and creating a successful career for yourself and your future employer. Doing some research will he lp you come up with the right options for you and your future employer.Free research paper help is available and is just as valuable as the kind that you pay for. Instead of trying to get the best results you can from a paper that you did not spend money on, you can do it yourself and get the most out of the resources that are available.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Muhammad Ali’s Influence on Hip-Hop - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1551 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2019/08/02 Category People Essay Level High school Tags: Muhammad Ali Essay Did you like this example? Muhammad Ali was one of the greatest boxers to step foot in the ring. His brilliance showed every time he put on his gloves. Besides being a sports and entertainment legend, Ali was a social icon. His impact reached all around the world, and he is a role model for many people in many ways. Hip-Hop has been impacted by Muhammad Ali greatly and it shows. Muhammad Ali tremendously influenced hip-hop through rhyming, dissing, nicknames, and most importantly, his activism. Muhammad Ali, born January 17, 1942 with the name Cassius Clay, would soon become one of the most important and praised African American role models ever. He grew up in Louisville, Kentucky during a period of segregation. His father supported his wife and two sons by doing billboard paintings and sign work. His mother worked around the house. At age twelve he began his boxing career, and little did he know it was the start of him becoming the greatest American professional boxer. His boxing career included, being the first fighter to win the world heavyweight championship on three separate occasions, winning medals at the Olympics, getting crowned as the world and the male athlete of the year on several accounts, and being celebrated as one of the most significant and celebrated sports figures in history. Ali was not only rewarded for his achievements in boxing but was honored for his social activism and philanthropism. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Muhammad Ali’s Influence on Hip-Hop" essay for you Create order Even though it originated from Africa, hip-hop is a culture and art movement that was developed on August 11th of 1973 in the west Bronx, New York City. The innovation for this style of music was brought to life by its founding father, Clive Campbell-better known as DJ Kool Herc. Ali was in his prime during the 70s and that was when hip-hop was first starting up. The popular styles from the 70s were disco and funk that were constantly played in clubs during this time. The economy started to decline during this era resulting in many discos and night clubs forced to close their doors due to the lack of money being made to support them. Parties were brought back on the streets in urban areas where DJs would use sound systems to mix funk and soul style music. DJs would add in breaks, a tradition adopted from Jamaica, which led to many people dancing in a way that is today referred to as break-dancing. Through the years as more inventions came about, hip-hop had soon spread across the cou ntry and was becoming the top selling music genre by the 90s. To this day hip-hop is globally recognized and continues to influence music, styles, and culture around the world. Muhammad Ali might not have been a hip-hop artist, but his character and personality influenced many rising hip-hop artists to adapt his ways in their music. One way he did so was through his activism. Muhammad Ali, along with African Americans everywhere, had to deal with racism. Becoming a professional boxer gave him fame and a platform to speak out about the brutal system of oppression that he and others had to face constantly. Because he was so well known, he had a large audience that saw how they could accomplish much more than being the slaves they’d been forced to be. He used this to his advantage to ask for change and encourage his fans to speak up and fight for a change with him. Many people idolized him for putting everything on the line to fight for his rights, especially those who were musicians. Hip-hop music, when it started getting lyrics, mostly related to social issues and personal experiences and feelings. African American hip-hop artists began protesting thr ough their music in the same way Ali had been protesting. The general oppressions of African Americans and the need to speak out were very strong and already happening, but Ali gave a boost of confidence for many to speak out to a wider audience and bigger platform. Hip-hop spread the feelings of the African American community to territories all around the world. This soon became the main focus of the genre. Rhyming is a huge component when dealing with hip-hop music. Rhymes help make the flow better, make sure the lyrics lie easily on top of the rhythm, and give the songs a more poetic and storytelling feel. Muhammad Ali was known for talking trash to his opponents by rhythmic poetry. The most famous of his poems consisted of two lines that read: [bookmark: _Hlk531104239]â€Å"Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee. The hands can’t hit what the eyes can’t see.† This famous Ali rhyme was sampled in a Lupe Fiasco song titled â€Å"Till I Get There.† Most professional boxers would try to belittle their competitors by threats, but Ali’s diss stood out from all of the others because of the rhyme that made it memorable and unique. Hip-hop artists used Ali’s rhyming tactic in their music so it would attract listeners. The subtle flow and catchy pattern appealed to the general audience quickly. It helped improve music so immensely that rhyming is still commonly used in hip-hop today. To have the most famous poem in sports history, Muhammad Ali had to use disses in the boxing ring. Dissing is seen regularly in sports like boxing. Opponents trash talk each other for publicity, to increase fight buzz, or to intimidate the other into losing the fight. Muhammad was the best at insulting his rivals. Some of his most famous trash talk included: It’s gonna be a chilla, and a killa†¦Ã¢â‚¬  and â€Å"Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee. The hands can’t hit what the eyes can’t see.† Hip-hop started to include bragging, insults, and boasting content into songs. Hip-hop battling can occur on recorded albums, though rap battles are often recited or freestyled spontaneously in live battles. This added an entertaining and exciting element to hip-hop because listeners were fascinated by the amusing and provocative things being said about artists. Hip-hop artists still use this method today to draw in listeners. [bookmark: _Hlk531168205] Muhammad Ali wasn’t born with this given name. He was born as Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. He changed to Muhammad Ali because he didn’t want to be referred to by his â€Å"slave name.† As his boxing career progressed, Ali began nicknaming himself the GOAT (Greatest of all Time). Nicknames were a huge part of boxing that all the competitors took part in. They were memorable and built confidence. Hip-hop artists are also widely known for going by a nickname, which is often described as a stage name. 2 Chainz, 50 Cent, 21 savage, Big Sean, ASAP Rocky, and Cardi B are just a few of the hip-hop artists today and through the generations who adopted the use of a pseudonym. It allows for easier pronunciation of an actual name, or a chance to give artists a worthy title of being the greatest or a savage. Tons of hip-hop artists credit Muhammad Ali for influencing their genre. Chuck D, a popular hip-hop artist from the mid-90s, said he recognized Ali for influencing hop-hop with his rhyming and his braveness. His name is also mentioned in several hop-hop songs by several musicians. The songs either refer to his boxing skills or his contributions to hip-hop. 2 Chainz and Rick Ross’s â€Å"Ali Bomaye† references a showdown between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman in which the audience chanted the saying that translates to â€Å"Ali, kill him.† Nicki Minaj calls herself the greatest and mentions Ali in her song â€Å"Win Again.† Like Minaj, 50 cent says he is the greatest like Ali in his song â€Å"Many Men (Wish Death).† In T.I.’s song â€Å"Rubber Band Land†, he gives credit to Ali for being the reason for how he can live how he wants through singing hip-hop music. Lupe Fiasco used Ali’s most famous poem, â€Å"float like a butter fly, sting like a bee† and his name as lyrics in his song â€Å"Till I Get There.† The most well-known of songs written about Muhammad Ali was LL Cool J’s â€Å"Mama Said Knock You Out† that is all about fighting like Ali. Many more artists have him mentioned in their songs, and many have acknowledged Ali’s impact through interviews and on social media platforms. Overall, it may be said that Muhammad greatly influenced hip-hop. Through his strong activism and fight for equality, he encouraged and inspired African Americans to protest with him, and many did through their music. He attributed to the rhyming aspect of the genre through his poetic ways of speaking. Ali dissed his boxing opponents before, during, and after the match, and hip-hop musicians frequently have live battles where disses are freestyled or include the insults on their recorded albums. Artists in the genre usually give themselves a stage name to use in place of their real name similarly like Cassius Clay did to Muhammad Ali to the GOAT. Hip-hop artists from the era of Muhammad Ali to now have given him credit for inspiring them in their music, whether it be from his political and social actions, his poetic rhyming and dissing, or his use of nicknaming. Muhammad Ali is a significant component in the development of hip-hop culture and composition that is still commonly used t oday.

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Effect Of Selective And Divided Attention - 1524 Words

Abstract: The aim of the investigation was to compare selective and divided attention, and the aim was to investigate which form of attention allows a listener to pick up more auditory information. It was hypothesized that the Year 12 psychology students who were in Group 1 (Selective attention) were going to take in more information from Handouts 9 and 10 than Group 2 (divided attention). ** Participants from both of Mrs Hewton’s psychology classes partook in this experiment. The results of the investigation was a combination of both classes and the totalled average showed that the selective attention group remembered an average of ** compared to the divided attention group whom had an average of **. Therefore giving the conclusion that the results of the experiment conducted were inconsistent and they did support our hypothesis. Introduction: Attention is the notice taken of someone or something; the regarding of someone or something as interesting or important. Attention is a concept, which is studied in cognitive psychology. Psychologist William James believes attention is â€Å"the taking possession of the mind†. Attention does allow us to focus on something specific in our environment whilst tuning out the irrelevant details, however attention also affects our perception of the stimuli around us. In some cases, by focusing attention on a primary target might not result in not perceiving a second target at all. Attention has to do with an immediate experience of anShow MoreRelatedThe Importance Of Multitasking Attention On Children Essay1479 Words   |  6 Pagesto Kellogg, attention is being able to select certain aspects of an environment or certain thoughts. However, multitasking attention can become difficult to achieve because attention can either be selective or limited. A selective attention means that an individual can only focus on one stimuli, therefore, having to ignore surrounding stimuli. On the other hand, limited attention defines the maximum capacity an individual can retain information. Therefore, because attention is selective and limitedRead MoreThe And Types Of Neuropsychological Methods Employed1134 Words   |  5 Pagesin other neurodegenerative conditions which include symptomatic drugs such as amantadine (Benedict et al. 2008; Parmenter et al. 2007) and donepezil (Benedict et al. 2004;Marrie et al. 2005). These have been reported to have a positive therapeutic effe ct on cognitive functioning in MS cases with mild to moderate levels of impairment. Various treatment approaches to treat cognitive deficits in MS are as follows- i) Medication a) Disease modifying treatment b) Cholinergic drugs c) Amantadine d) AmphetaminesRead MoreSleep Loss On Attention And Cognitive Performance Essay1445 Words   |  6 Pagesclass lecture or even at the wheel. However, it is clear that without a good night’s rest, sleep-deprived individuals can find it difficult to pay attention, even if they want to stay awake. Thus, it becomes important to examine the underlying mechanisms that explain the negative effects of sleep loss on attention and cognitive performance. Sleep effects can be measured by alertness, which describes the overall state of the cognitive system and can be attributed to two primary components: a circadianRead MoreEssay on Testing the Theory of Multitasking1122 Words   |  5 PagesThis experimental investigation has to do with how human’s attention work. It is based on a replication of the well-known â€Å"Stroop Effect† carried out on 1935 by John Ridley Stroop. The aim of this experiment was to demonstrate how hard it is for a person’s attention to be d ivided in different tasks, by making the participants read a series of three stimuli which consisted of: 1) words of colors in black ink, 2) words of colors in their actual font color, and 3) color words with different ink, whereRead MoreThe Effects Of Sleep Deprivation On Prospective Memory Essay1353 Words   |  6 PagesThe Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Prospective Memory Sleep is one of the key essentials for cognitive performance, yet it is accounted that most people do not receive a sufficient amount. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention reported in 2016 that on average, 50-70 million Americans do not receive the proper amount of sleep per night. This concept is more commonly referred to as sleep deprivation. By definition, sleep deprivation is simply not getting enough or the lack of sleep. As theRead MoreA Short Note On Silent And Oral Modes Of Learning1592 Words   |  7 Pagesretrieval of information acquired through learning.† (Grivas, 2013, 263). The Von Restorff effect – also known as the Isolation effect – is a form of a Memory bias in favour of remembering the unusual. It predicts that â€Å"if an item is isolated, that item is learned faster, retained longer, and recalled better than a non-isolated item† (Homes, C. Arbogast, R., 1979) Previous research on the Isolation effect has focussed on which conditions the isolate is more recalled in. I-Ning Huang and CraigRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effect On Children965 Words   |  4 PagesSustained attention was defined by one’s ability to maintain prolonged focus during repetitive activities. Researchers found that the ability to remain focused on a single task was most correlated with the volume of media consumption, social media usage, multi-screening behaviour, and when the individual adopted a technological lifestyle. As the use and consumption of technology increased, the ability to focus for a longer term decreased. Age was a variable heavily correlated with these metrics,Read MorePerception and Attention Essay1869 Words   |  8 PagesPerception and Attention Perception is a remarkable trait. Consider human vision, a two-dimensional array of light appears on the retina, which houses the visual receptors. Instead of seeing a random collection of color dots, people immediately experience a rich, coherent, veridical, three-dimensional perception of an object, person, or event Perhaps the most astounding fact is that this occurs immediately, mostly outside of conscious awareness (Robinson-Riegler Robinson-Riegler, 2008). PerceptionRead Moreaging Essay6944 Words   |  28 Pagesperformance irrespective of the degree of age related cognitive declines. In other words, declines in physiological performance exacerbate the effects of aging on cognitive functioning. Brouwer (1993) contends that impairments that lie both on the level of receptor-effector organs and on the level of cognitive functioning, particularly 4 attention, contribute to the problems older drivers encounter with the driving task. For example, perceptual, cognitive, and motor declines affect an olderRead MoreAn Voluntary Control Over More Automatic Brain Systems1206 Words   |  5 Pagesdefine attention as being this voluntary control over more automatic brain systems to effectively select and manipulate sensory or stored information briefly or for sustained periods. One component of attention is this term ‘sustained attention’, which is the ability to consistently engage in an activity over time without loosing concentration (Willard Spackman, 2014). Willard Spackman express that repetitive and predictable activities place less demands on sustained attention. Attention process

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Education, Birth Control, And Parental Consent - 823 Words

The issue to be discussed herein is that of young people and access to contraception without parental consent, based around the article Schools, Birth Control, and Parental Consent (Urist, 2015). The term â€Å"young people† herein refers to teenagers who have not reached an age of majority. With adolescence being a time of both sexual maturation and increased risk-taking, it is unsurprising that adolescence is a period in which many young people become sexually active (Tillett, 2005). With 69% of year 10 to 12 students reporting having engaged in some kind of sexual activity and 34% having engaged in intercourse (Mitchell et al, 2014), the idea that adolescence is a period of sexual innocence is misinformed; young people do have sex, whether or not they have undertaken sex education or have access to contraception. The ethical issues around adolescent access to contraception are numerous. The idea that young people will engage in more sex if they are able to access contraception is persistent, and this holds the potential for unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and damage caused by having sex without giving informed consent. The second ethical issue of parental consent revolves around parents having the right to be aware of their children’s medi cal history, conflicting with the child’s right to confidentiality. An ethical argument that can be made about contraception and young people is that having access to contraception leads to an increase in sexualShow MoreRelatedEssay about Should Teens Have Parental Consent to Receive Birth Control?928 Words   |  4 Pagesthey turn 18. Although some teens are on birth control already many are not because they are afraid to tell their parents which may lead to their parents thinking they are sexually active. Moreover, teens usually find themselves in a professional clinic trying to seek different options of birth control but they are derailed by having parental consent or notification. Many clinics have a policy were teen needs to have parental consent to receive birth control. Many parents feel that teens should beRead MorePersuasive Essay On Birth Control1288 Words   |  6 Pagesminors, defined as children twelve and older, to consent to contraceptive services; Michigan allows some minors, such as those who are married or have previously been pre gnant, to consent; four states have no standing laws or policy (â€Å"An Overview† 1-2). The contraceptive access also varies across the country. Some states require comprehensive sexual education and for teens to be able to access contraceptives. Some lean more towards abstinence only education in the hopes teens will steer away from sexualRead MoreUnintended Pregnancy Prevention Essay1269 Words   |  6 Pages Are controversial concerns about the birth control pill really a problem? Allowing teenagers to use the birth control pill has been a controversial subject for parents, teachers, and teenagers for a wide range of reasons. The vast majority of teenage pregnancies, more than four out of five, are unplanned (Unintended Pregnancy Prevention). Whether teenagers believe in common myths that they cant get pregnant the first time having sex or they truly believe nothing like this could ever happenRead MoreThe Prevention Of Teenage Pregnancy Essay1513 Words   |  7 Pag esage of eighteen or have parental consent to be granted any form of hormonal birth control from a clinic. In order to receive birth control from a clinic, they must have insurance to help bring costs down in order to afford it. There are also organizations such as Planned Parenthood who may help provide birth control and other services to people and teenagers who are in need of it and cannot afford it. There are socioeconomic disparities that may attribute to high teen birth rates in some communitiesRead MoreAccess to Evidence Based Sex Education in American Public Schools999 Words   |  4 PagesThere is a strong need for greater access to current and evidence-based sex education in American public schools. Concurrent with access to information and education about human sexuality, schools should also be offering students safe, anonymous ways of receiving condoms. Condoms are crucial for preventing unwanted pregnancy: and it can easily be said that all teen pregnancies in the United States will be classified as unwanted. Moreover, condoms will prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseasesRead MoreBirth Control : Who Controls?1159 Words   |  5 PagesBirth Control: Who Controls? â€Å"Should teenagers be allowed to get birth control without the permission of their parents?† Outline: -Thesis Statement- Teenagers should not be required to have permission from their parents to receive birth control. Religious Beliefs: -Sex before marriage -Encouraging the child to have sex -Against God’s will (IT’S A SIN) Communications with teens/parents -Wanting to know from a parent’s perspective -Asking the teen â€Å"why† -Social problems leading to crisis explosionRead MoreTeens Getting Birth Control Without Parental Consent Essays1057 Words   |  5 Pages101 Mrs. Johnson 20 November 2012 Teens Getting Birth Control Without Parental Consent Currently Teenagers are trying to grow up too quickly. They want to be just like the TV characters they idolize and will change themselves to do so. There are shows on TV like â€Å"16 and pregnant† that basically insinuate; if you have sex and get pregnant then you will get paid to be on television. Most teens do not go to their parents for birth control because they are afraid. In general teenagers do notRead MoreThe Birth Control Of Margaret Sanger Essay951 Words   |  4 Pagesrights which one of the main one was to legalize birth control in America. During the process of fighting Sanger establish the American Birth Control League, now called Planned Parenthood. Sanger fund money to Grisworld the created of the hormonal birth control pill the dream of Sanger. Sanger, â€Å"wanted to have it all, and was birth control as the necessary condition for the resolution of their often conflicting needs.† (Chesler 25). Birth control has always been a colossal issue since it was inventionRead MoreParental Consent Or Notification For Minors2346 Words   |  10 Pagesyou to buy this without consent from your parents†. That conversation was a glimpse into the future, unless educated personnel puts a stop to it. Worldwide, minors are being threatened of having their privacy rights stripped away from them just like that. An issue has occurred where bits and pieces of the population have started to question a minor s legal capability to buy contraceptives without parental consent or notification. To create a barrier by requiring consent or notification for minorsRead MoreSample Resume : Comprehensive Sex Education887 Words   |  4 PagesSEX EDUCATION BE TAUGHT IN US PUBLIC SCHOOLS? While abstinence-only sex education discusses solely abstinence, comprehensive sex education provides information about various areas of human sexuality and methods to practice safe and healthy sexual behaviors. To fully understand the controversy surrounding comprehensive sexual education, one need to obtain knowledge about the history of sex education in the United States, legislation, class content, and the effects of sexual education policies

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Financial Instrument free essay sample

Because the process of determining the exercise price is dependent upon the arithmetic average of the index of 7 particular days during 7 month with 30 days of interval, extremely volatile results due to the daily fluctuation of the market can be reasonably avoided. So, by arithmetic average, investors will be able to minimize the risks due to volatilities and seek rather stable returns as the investors of the product would be risk averters rather than risk seekers. b) Benefits to HSBC The main characteristic of Asian option is low volatility compared to other options. According to Black Scholes option pricing model, if the volatility is low, the option can also be priced lower. As HSBC needs to minimize the insurance premiums for the protection of the fund, it will try to minimize option premiums and relatively lower prices of Asian options will help HSBC remain profitable. In practice, as the option premiums for the protection of investment is usually expensive, the seller of the product write options and put the cap on investment in order to reduce the total premium expenses. By using Average index for the premium, HSBC could become more profitable as the investment will become more popular and more profitable. Question 3 Question 4. Explain how the investor pays for 100% capital protection In the product, the present value of zero coupon bond that has the face value of $100,000, interest rate 6% of per annum annually compounded, and 4. 5 years of maturity is $76,934. 9 ( 10,000/(1+0. 06)4. 5). The difference of AUD23,065. 1 between PV of zero coupon bond and initial investment will be used for the purchase of the options to guarantee the initial investment. In addition, HSBC will write the call option that will keep the maximum return up to the cap of 70% of ASX 200 index with the participation rate of 100%. In order to maintain the participation rate of 100%, approximately 21. 156 contracts of options should be traded for the initial investment of $100,000. This will be explained in detail in Question 5. As the price of the bought call option for the capital protection is $705. 2 and the price of the written call option is $40. 9, investors will have to pay $14,323. 34[21. 156 x ($705. 2 – 40. )] as the insurance premium for the 100% capital protection and maintain cap of 70% on index. In short, it can be said that the investor combines zero coupon bond and the ‘bull spread’ strategy that can be to protect 100% capital. In addition, according to the Product Disclosure Statement(â€Å"PDS†) issued by HSBC, the separate upfront fee of 2. 475% will be deducted as an Advisor fee and a fee of 0. 825% will be deduc ted as administration fee. So, the fee of $3,300 will be deducted for $100,000 invested into HSBC for the Advisory and administration service. The payoff graph of the bull spread strategy is as below; Question 5. HSBC 100+ Series Samp;P/ASX 200 Linked Investment can be decomposed into bought call, sold call and 4 ? year zero coupon bond. In practice, when constructing Equity Linked Products like this, 100% participation ratio cannot be maintained by just trading one pair of bought and sold options. For example, only $3,246. 525 will be earned when 7 months’ average ASX200 index rises up to 70% from 4,637. 893 to 7,884. 418. But, as specified in the PDS, investors should earn 7,000, a return of 70% from initial investment of $10,000. So, the ideal number of option contracts will be 2. 156(7000 / 3,246. 525) for every $10,000 investment. In other words, as the participation rate for the Equity Linked Investment will only be 46. 38%($3,246. 52 / $7,000), the option of 2. 1561 contracts should be accompanied for every $10,000 investment in order to satisfy the conditions in the PDS. Below are the payoffs of individual financial instruments. Question 6. An alternative strategy for the replicated portfolio can be made by using the combination of Samp;P/ASX 200 Exchange Traded Fund(ETF) combined with the bought put option and sold call option. In order to exactly replicate the Equity Linked products with 100% participation ratio, each set of the contract should be multiplied by 2. 1561. SPDR Samp;P/ASX 200 Fund can be used as the equity indexfund that imitating the return of ASX 200. But the problems can occur when using the alternative strategy as listed. a) When the options are priced as a form of Asian option, the price is calculated on average index. But, the price of equity index future is dependent upon daily indexes. So, the exact replication may not be possible. ) Considering the transaction costs of buying, selling options and index fund, a complicated fine tuning process is required to make similar profit as original product. Instead of investing in ASX 200 index fund, we can use synthetic forward to imitate ASX 200 index movement. We can buy a call and sell a put on the ASX200 index with same strike price and time to expiry. 7. The benefit of investor Investors who want to replicate the portfolio may try to do t he same investment. The investor can deposit 4. 5years zero coupon bond and combine bull spread(buy call option and sell call option). But, the replication may have following difficulties for the individual investor. a) Due to the characteristics of the equity index option that need daily settlement, individual investors should keep an eye on daily indexes and need to reserve enough liquidity to answer the margin call if required. Unlike investing in HSBC Samp;P/ASX 200 linked investment, investors cannot just invest and do nothing. Daily actions are needed to keep the investment going. b) In order to meet the 100% participation ratio, about 2. 156 contracts of options are needed for each $10,000 investment. As the minimum contract size is restricted to 10 in the Australian Exchange, individual investors cannot meet the planned participation ratio. To meet the same payoffs, the investment amount should be set to the multiple of $46,378( $10,000 x 10 / 2. 156) to in order to keep to the market-defined option contract requirement. Instead, if investors invest in HSBC, they will be able to invest relatively free amount of money. c) In the Australian exchange, special type of options such as Asian options are not traded. Instead, individual investors may be able to split the investment in options to 7 maturities to get the average returns, and heavy administration efforts follow for them to bear. By investing in HSBC, investors will be able to save their resources in individual wealth management. d) With the structured product from HSBC, investors can enjoy tax concession. But, if investors would try to structure the product, a complicated tax issue may appear that would need advices from tax specialists the cost of which would not be negligible for individual investors. Question 8. ) When an investor intends to hold the investment until its maturity, he(she) has to undertake some risks. * Investors could lose the gain from term deposit. Even though the fund guarantee 100% capital protection, that does not mean that investors lose nothing. The Underlying Index may depreciate as well as appreciate and the ending underlying average index level could fall below the initial index causing zero Return on t he Investment(ROI). * Even if the underlying index exceeds over the return cap of 70% at maturity, still an investor would lose return above the return cap. Compared to direct investment into index products in the bullish market, the product carries opportunity costs that are hard to carry for some risk seekers to endure. * Investors need to pay the fee of 3. 3%(Upfront fee of 2. 475% plus Administration fee of 0. 825%) which would not be needed for direct investment into market. * Counterparty risk exists to the product. As this product is not backed up by Australian Government Guarantee Scheme, in case of failure of HSBC, though it is not specified in the PDS, return from the product could be substantially lower than declared capital protection level. Early termination in respect of the investment can be declared by HSBC preceding the maturity date regardless of the investor’s will to keep the investment to maturity. And there are no safeguards against HSBC’s internal failure on fund management or operational catastrophe as management of the fund is wholly dependent on HSBC’s capacity to deal with the stated contra ct and ability to lead the daily operation. b) When an investor does not intend to hold the investment until its maturity, he(she) has to undertake some risks. Though there is no early withdrawal fee, no upfront fee is not allocated over holding period and is not returned. Investor could waste relatively heavier amount of fees in early withdrawal. * For the early withdrawal before maturity date whether in whole or in part, investor can receive less than initial investment because capital protection applies only on the Maturity Date, and not on Early Withdrawal date. * There are tax consequences on early withdrawal. Unlike withdrawal at Maturity where the capital gain that an investor makes will be eligible for concessional treatment as a discount capital gain where the relevant conditions are satisfied, early withdrawal within 12months after acquisition date will not get concessional treatment. Question 9. There are many issues that HSBC needs to consider when designing the complicated product like this. In short, the issues can be classified to product design, profitability, operational risks and counterparty risks, and marketing issues as detailed below. ) Product design issue: * The product is different from ordinary ELS that guarantees investment protection and cap level by the spot index of the maturity date that market practice because it uses the 7 months’ arithmetic average of the closing level of the Samp;P/ASX 200 index. As the options that calculate its return based on 7 months’ average are not traded in the Australian Exchange, HSBC should either divide option protecti on to 7 different maturities and trade them in ASX or make an Over-The-Counter(OTC) option with the relevant counterparty. HSBC needs to decide whether to invest in zero coupon bond and bull spread or to invest in equity index product with bought put and sold call options in order to guarantee 100% capital protection and 70% cap over Samp;P/ASX 200 index and to cope with the probable early withdrawal requests from individual investors. * Investors may be able to assume that the product is based on SPDR Samp;P/ASX200 index fund because investors’ cost base is dependent upon market value of the fund when calculating capital gain or loss according to the taxation consequences opinion issued by Mallesons Stephen Jaques which is contained in the PDS. So, it is important to operate the product in order to occur reasonable return within the pre-determined investment guideline. b) Profitability issue * In order to meet the participation rate to 100%, about 2. 156 option contracts have to be attached to the zero coupon bond of $10,000 and the costs for the purchase of the options come from the difference between present value of zero coupon bond and investor’s investment as summarized below table. Initial investment by investor| 10,000. 00| Zero coupon bond interest rate| 6% | Investment Period| 4. 0 | Present Value of the protected fund. | 7,693. 49 | Difference between PV and initial investment| 2,306. 51 | Price of Embedded option @ protection level| 705. 20 | Price of Embedded option @ cap level| -40. 90 | The number of option contract to satisfy 100% participation ratio| 2. 156 | Net option premium cost| 1,432. 33 | Adviser fee(2. 475%)| 247. 50 | Admin fee(0. 825%)| 82. 50 | Net margin from bank| 544. 17 | So, if funds a re operated as planned, HSBC would be able to get margin of 5. 4% from investors after deducting all necessary initial expenses. But the margin may not be enough for HSBC as it will still need the costs to keep the fund going(management, operational expenses, transaction costs, and more) and it should answer for the investors’ abrupt early withdrawal. Management need to keep details on the expenses. c) Operational Risk management issue * It is extremely important to build internal operation structure that would record all transaction and keep mark to market prices accurately. With the heavy amount of fund going in and out of HSBC for trading, a strict internal control system to keep the cashflow in designated circle between HSBC and counterparties should be built in advance. * Enough liquidities to meet the margin calls of holding option positions should be prepared and managed with solid outlook on economic prospects along with Samp;P/ASX 200 index. d) Counterparty issue * A s the investment in zero coupon bond with 4. 5 years of maturity is crucial in building the product structure, it is extremely important to purchase risk-free or lowest risk bonds with solid credit rating. As the bond itself is not 100% risk free asset and carries the risk of going default, during the investment period, HSBC should keep an eye on the performance of the bond and be ready to switch to alternative bonds with the same remaining maturities. * If the option trades are done over the counter, HSBC should focus some of its resources to the counterparty so that the pre-arranged contracts will be executed in timely and accurate manner. e) Marketing issue * HSBC should make sure that the marketing plan of the product is planned and executed appropriately. The success of the product is dependent upon the amount of the viable contract so that HSBC could maintain bonds and option contract as designed and keep efficient internal operational structure. * HSBC should have a set a minimum level of total investment under management and set the plan to call off all investment and return the amount back to investors in case total application amount is below feasible level. * Also HSBC should anticipate the likely maximum level of total investment to process the applications and operate the process within its capacity. Even after the fund structure is designed, the fund cannot be launched if the recent market is extraordinarily bullish and turbulent as the individual investors will believe that the market is already over the top and will not seek further return after 4. 5 years. If the market is too bearish and under recession, individual investors would lose any motivations to keep their assets for 4. 5 years. * So, HSBC should focus on touchin g investors’ desire to keep relatively safe return with the protection on invested funds when the market is relatively calm and the indexes have been stable. - [ 1 ]. An  Asian option  (or  average value  option) is a special type of  option contract. The payoff is determined by the average underlying price over some pre-set period of time. ; Asian options are thus one of the basic forms of  exotic options. Asian options are so called because they were introduced in Tokyo, Japan, in 1987, at a branch of an American bank. [ 2 ]. A bull call spread is constructed by buying a call option with a low exercise price (K), and selling another call option with a higher exercise price. Often the call with the lower exercise price will be at-the-money while the call with the higher exercise price is out-of-the-money. Both calls must have the same underlying security and expiration month. [ 3 ]. Payoff from bought call option = 7,884. 418 – 4,637. 893. [ 4 ]. The  SP/ASX 200 Index  (XJO) is recognised as the investable benchmark for the Australian equity market, it addresses the needs of investment managers to benchmark against a portfolio characterised by sufficient size and liquidity. The SP/ASX 200 is comprised of the SP/ASX 100 plus an additional 100 stocks. It forms the basis for the SP/ASX 200 Index Future and Options and the SPDR SP/ASX 200 Exchange Traded Fund (ETF). [ 5 ]. SPDR SP/ASX 200 seeks to closely match, before fees and expenses, the returns of the SP/ASX 200 Index. Its approach is designed to provide portfolios with low portfolio turnover, accurate tracking, and lower costs. [ 6 ]. Division 115 of the Income Tax Assessment 1997 Act